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Recommendations from #Elhuyar

2021 | March 04

Neanderthal or Neanderthal? (04-03-2021)

When writing in Basque, doubts about the time are common. In this case, however, the question of h comes from the original wording of the German word.

The name Neanderthal comes from the site of the German valley of Neander, where the Neanderthals, the XIX, were first discovered. In the middle of the century XX.Thal means, in German, “valley”. Neanderthal means “Neander ibarra”.

In 1901, however, the Germans changed the name of the toponym; since then, Nea...

Neanderthal or Neanderthal? (04-03-2021)

When writing in Basque, doubts about the time are common. In this case, however, the question of h comes from the original wording of the German word.

The name Neanderthal comes from the site of the German valley of Neander, where the Neanderthals, the XIX, were first discovered. In the middle of the century XX.Thal means, in German, “valley”. Neanderthal means “Neander ibarra”.

In 1901, however, the Germans changed the name of the toponym; since then, Neanderthal is the former Neanderthal.

Thus, in the Spanish of the area it appears with two pictures (Neanderthal/Neandertal). In German, French and Spanish they have chosen the Neandertal, which is the one that recommends the Panhispanic Dictionary of Doubts of the Royal Spanish Academy. Even exploring Spanish Wikipedias, the superiority of graphs is evident.

However, English predominates in H and, given the great influence of English in all areas and especially in the scientist, it is not surprising that Neanderthal Graphy is also seen in texts of other languages.

In the texts and dictionaries of Elhuyar, since 2011, the man of Neanderthal (capital of Neanderthal and minuscule man) and the Neanderthal (minuscule) is being used; Neanderthal, in minuscule, is mainly used to designate the group: Neanderthals of that time were hunter-gatherers.

Despite the writing of each of the languages, the Latin name of the species is Homo neanderthalensis, and can be written as such in the texts of the other languages: the first name in uppercase, the second in lowercase, in italics and with -thal- h.

ERE: small and naughty ligament… yes! (18-02-2021)

They are only three letters, but the ligament also causes many headaches. And it is that within the phrase can not be located anywhere and, depending on its location, changes the meaning of the phrase.

The Real Academia de la Lengua Vasca-Euskaltzaindia has not given specific standards in this regard, but it is included in the Unified Basque Handbook and in other works of the Euskaltzaindia itself such as Jagonet and EGLU. In all dialects it is used quite the same (although in Iparralde there are other forms) and it can be said that there is a standardized use. We will try to explain it through some examples (in red, those that seem exclusive to us).

In these times of pandemic, more than ever, we are in need of being with friends, and one of the old dinners of the gang offers us the opportunity to create good examples.

Let’s imagine we’re going to have a dinner in the gang…

Mikel waits. *Jon too. *Nerea returns. Igone will also come. Andoni too. Also to Ainara.

Mikel will bring cider. *Jon also brings cider. *Nerea will also bring cider (if you mean that cider will bring it not only Mikel but Nerea). Igon will also bring cider. *Andoni also. Andoni too.

(In addition to cider) Mikel will bring wine. *Mikel will also bring wine. *Mikel will also bring the wine.

Nerea came to the last supper we made and *will also come to the next. *Return to next. Return to next.

We don't know where to make dinner. We can do it at Nerea's house. *We can also do it in Andoni. We can also do it in Mikelen. *We can also do it in a restaurant. *Also in the hamlet Jon. Also in the association of Igone. *Also on the terrace of Ainara. Also on the terrace of Ainara.

It is also an expansion connector, which adds a reference to the information provided in the previous sentence, specifically to its left component.

All these phrases are correct but do not mean the same thing. Do you see the difference?

Mikel brings dessert today. I bring dessert today.

I also bring dessert today. (Mikel and I bring dessert)

I also bring dessert today. (At the previous dinner I also had to bring dessert)

Today I also bring dessert. (I will bring bread and dessert)

Today I also bring dessert. (Besides buying dessert, I will bring)

We will also learn how to use it well and dinner time will come in the gang. Of course!

Vaccine effectiveness (e language) (28-01-2021)

In recent months, the vaccine is probably one of the most widely heard words, both in the media and in conversations between citizens. And in relation to vaccines, we also have their effectiveness, that is, the capacity of each type of vaccine against covid-19. This was said, for example, by journalist Jone Markuleta on the website Bizi Baratze:

“The US pharmaceutical company Moderna has announced a vaccine that is more effective than Pfizer’s and easier to conserve and transport cold.” (17-11-2020)

And they received it on the web Eta Kitto:

The modern vaccine needs two doses, especially effective for children under 65. (14-01-2021)

However, since covid-19 spread among us, we have often felt the need for more specialized language, to express things more accurately. And, of course, with efficiency we are going through the same. Because, what do we really mean when we say effectiveness? Do we always use it to express the same? What is hidden behind a seemingly transparent but really diffuse word?

As far as medicines are concerned, among which vaccines are of course, the word effectiveness in the general language can express three specific and differentiated concepts: effectiveness, effectiveness and efficiency. In common language, we often use these terms in a confusing way, understanding the three as synonymous with that diffuse effectiveness, and this diffuse use usually has no extraordinary consequences. However, the health situation we live in today makes it often essential and convenient to differentiate concepts well and use their terminology outside the medical field. That's what Ana Galarraga has recently tried, in the program The Keys of Koronabirusa, and we will also try here.

Efficacy measures the benefit of the drug in the most favorable state. This is the case, for example, of clinical sessions, in which the entire process is fully controlled from the beginning to the end: the dose given; how it is administered; the time between the first and the second in the case of two doses. In the case of COVID-19 vaccines, some are more than 90% effective, that is, more than 90% of those vaccinated are protected against the COVID-19 virus.

Effectiveness, on the other hand, measures the benefit of the drug in real situation, that is, when it comes to an extensive population. Of course, it is less effective, because the situation is not ideal, that is, that of the laboratory. To measure the effectiveness, we must take into account, among other things, the state of health and the social situation of the person vaccinated, the dose he really takes, if he takes the second dose in the necessary time, etc.

Finally, we have efficiency, which also takes into account economic factors. In this case, the benefit of the vaccine is compared to the cost of the vaccine. For example, a vaccine can be very effective but very expensive, in which case it could not spread to all parts of the world, so the efficiency of this vaccine would be very low.

In Elhuyar's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Science and Technology, we can distinguish the three concepts as follows:


Megas and gigas are not units of anything and Mb and MB are symbols of very different units (13-01-2021)

The advertising of telephony operators is free and at any time; the attack is indiscriminate and difficult to combat. With effort and repetition, they reach our brains, put the fads and alter the language until we ignore what we say.

They will tell you that the context always clarifies the meaning, but if you ask yourself, the doubts come out.

For example, in the Christmas that have passed we had the feast of gigas and megas. One giving gigas, another I don't know how many fiber optic megas...

Here are the four clear concepts we have to have, to know what we are talking about and write them seriously:

1- Gigas and megas are not units, but prefixes to express multiples that are used together with units. From Baiona to Bilbao there are 155 kilometers or my phone is 16 centimeters, and nobody says that from Bayona to Bilbao there are 155 kilos or my phone is 16 centimeters long.

That is, the words gigas and megas represent a thousand and a million of something, respectively, but if we do not specify what it is, we do not indicate what we are talking about.

2- The most basic information unit is the bit whose symbol is b. There is another unit, the byte, formed by eight bits, whose symbol is B. Being relatively small units, they are usually used together with multiples and each has its symbol: megabit (Mb), gigabit (Gb), megabyte (MB), gigabyte (GB)...

We should not confuse both units (1 MB category1 Mb). Because one megabit (1 Mb) is one million bits, but one megabyte (1 MB) is eight million bits: 1MB = 8Mb.

3- Data transfer speed or data flow is a very important concept: the amount of information that is transferred per unit of time. When it comes to internet connection speed, the unit most used to measure data transfer speed is megabit per second (Mbps or Mbps). Therefore, if nowhere do we hear or read that there is “600 megas optical fiber”, we must think that it is an optical fiber that allows a data transfer of 600 megabites per second. Let no one think it means transferring 600 megabytes per second (up to 75 megabytes per second: 600/8 = 75).

And it is not difficult to confuse, since to measure data transfer between data storage devices it is customary to use the kB/s and MB/s drives (kilobyte per second and megabyte per second respectively). For example, when passing files from one computer disk to another, the computer may indicate that it is being transferred at a speed of 25MB/s.

On the other hand, if we read that on the phone we are going to have 10 more free gigas, we should think that “10 gigabytes” (10 GB of information, data) refers to downloading through the Internet to our phone or charging from it, that is, the number of data, which has nothing to do with the speed of loading or downloading of this data.

4- It has been said that using only the Mega or the Giga without mentioning the unit is inappropriate. So inadequate is to apply a unit to a magnitude that does not correspond to it. And that is also happening. For example, saying or writing “600 Mb of fiber optics” or “600 Mb of speed” is inappropriate, since fiber optics is not an information accumulation device but a way of information transfer. That is, the capacity of an information storage device, such as a disk or a USB stick, can be 600 Mb (very small today), but when we talk about an optical fiber, we have to say or write “fiber optic 600 Mbps” or “speed 600 Mbps”.

That is, saying or writing “600 Mb speed” in relation to optical fiber is as inappropriate as saying or writing in an athlete that “at 10 m speed”: The correct expressions are “600 Mbps speed” (600 megabites per second) and “10 m/s speed” (10 meters per second).


Concept (magnitude)

Simple units

Units with multiples

Digital information

bit (symbol b)

byte (symbol: B)

1 B = 8 b

kilobit (kb), megabit (Mb), gigabit (Gb)

kilobyte (kB), megabyte (MB), gigabyte (GB)

Data flow or information transfer speed

bits per second

(b/s or bps symbol)

Commercial internet connection speed (currently):

megabit per second (Mbps or Mbps)

Commercial speed of data transfer between devices (currently):

kilobyte per second (kB/s)

megabytes per second (MB/s)

Close… or less (18-12-2020)

The Christmas of this curious year 2020 is already waiting for the authorities to decide. In Euskal Herria we will have different realities. In Iparralde, despite having made closure a little more flexible, hospitality and cultural events should remain inactive, at least until January 20. On the contrary, in Hegoalde, although with restrictions, bars and restaurants are underway for the moment, and it seems that in the days indicated we can visit relatives and people nearby.

But what is being a close or close person? The doubt arose at the time when the Spanish Minister of Health gave an account of it, since it used the concept of "close" or "close people" in Spanish, and is not exact in fact.

The Spanish Language Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy defines: "Person close or close to another in kinship, friendship, treatment or trust." Therefore, in addition to family members, family members or relatives, this concept also includes close friends or close people.

We have searched for the correct match in Basque and found in bilingual Spanish-Basque dictionaries:


In French they are called “proches”.


All these dictionaries, with nuances, propose similar solutions for the Basque language: to be familiar or familiar, and to be close.

In the Basque version of the last decree of the Basque Government and the media, the word "close" has been used, which has prevailed among others to express "close" in Spanish. Therefore, Elhuyar proposes its use.

Enjoy the holidays in the best possible way alone or in the company of family or close people. Merry Christmas and happy new year to everyone!

In the symbols lowercase and uppercase letters are not available:
Km, Kg, not KW symbols! (24-11-2020)

Often, when using units, very large or small numbers occur. For example, it would not be appropriate or practical to express in meters the distance from Bayonne to Pamplona or the diameter of a hair, or the weight in grams of a car or the watts of power installed in a factory. Therefore multiples and submultiples of units are used depending on the metric decimal system.

The multiples and submultiples of the units are represented by adding prefixes to the names of the units (e.g., micro-, mil-, cent-, deci-, dec-, hekt-, kilo-, mega-, giga-...). Thus, we use millimeter, kilometer, etc. to avoid having to use very large or small numbers.

The unit names formed by a multiple or submultiple are common words, which are written according to the spelling of each language (kilometer in Basque, kilometer in Spanish, kilomètre in French, Italian chilometer, Portuguese at kilometer, in English, kilometre...), starting with capital or lowercase letters, as appropriate. For example, at the beginning of a text or after a point, they are capitalized.

In the international system of units, both the units and the submultiples and multiples used together with them, have standardized symbols. That is, symbolic writing is linked internationally, it is universal. The spelling of units and prefixes varies from language to language, but not from symbols: in all languages they are written the same, they are invariable.

Some of these prefixes are symbolized by lowercase letters (mili: m; centi-: c; kilo-: k; etc.) and others by capital letters (mega-: M; giga-: G; tera-: T; etc. ). They are symbols, they are invariable. Therefore, prefix symbols cannot be capitalized or lowercase depending on their position in the text or their own will.

Thus, the kilo prefix symbol is k (fine) and not K (severe). For example, its position in the text will be kilogram (in the usual texts, if it is not at the beginning of the sentence) or Kilogram (in a traditional text, if it is the first word of the text or occurs after a point) or KILOGRAM (for example, in a title in which everything is written in capital letters), but the symbol that represents this unit will always be kg and you cannot write Kg or KG. A spelling mistake is to write Kg, Km or KW to indicate kilograms, kilometer or kilowatio respectively. They have only one writing: kg, km and kW, both in Basque and in Spanish.

In addition, the misspelling of the symbol sometimes completely alters the meaning. For example:

1 mm = 0.001 meters (mm) / 1 Mm = 1.000.000 meters (megameter)

1 pm = 10–12 meters (gauge) / 1 pm = 1015 meters (meter)

1 cm = 10–21 meters (Ceptometer) / 1 Cm = 1021 meters (Cetometer)

1 ym = 10–24 meters (gauge) / 1 Ym = 1024 meters (jotmeter)

Coronavirus Screening (12-11-2020)

Have you also been tested for PCR? If they did, of course!

What is used to determine or verify that something is true, but what doctors and other health personnel do to detect the disease are tests or tests.

In the case of COVID-19, three tests or tests are being carried out:

- PCR or PCR testing

- Antigen or antigen testing

- Antibody or antibody tests

These are the main names that Elhuyar recommends to use, but we do not think antigen tests, antigen testing, antibody testing and antibody testing are exclusive.

PCR tests detect RNA from the virus and are highly reliable. They indicate whether someone is infected or not.

Antigen tests detect some proteins outside the virus. They are less reliable but faster than PCR tests. Antigen tests also indicate whether someone is infected or not.

Antibody tests are done by blood tests. There are two types: Immunoglobulin M detectors and immunoglobulin G detection. The first indicates that the disease is active. The second also shows that the body has overcome the disease and has created defenses.

Scientific explanation of each test or test, here, by Ana Galarraga Aiestaran.

Because diversity is not always functional (29-10-2020)

In several texts you can read the term functional diversity, in others the term functional diversity. In the corpus of the Lexical Observatory, for example, the frequencies of occurrence of both are distributed as follows: 35 / 25. Which is the most suitable? How is it defined?

To make a little history, it must be said that what concerns us is an alternative to the term disability (and prioritized in some areas), and that the same disability (official term, so to speak) has not emerged as the old, more adequate than disability, inferiority, disability, disability, etc. The following note from the Terminology Committee of the ACBC (2009) appears in some EUSKALTERM files (e.g. in the "motor disability" tab): "Below is the standardization report used by the Terminology Commission to assess disability as a counterpart to the terms handicap-disability."

At EUSKALTERM, do we have any answers to the question of functional diversity/diversity or additional information? Well, yes:

Dibertsitate funtzional zalantzarako

In this definition we have one of the main keys of the term: “(…) the quality of a person with functionalities or capacities different from those of the majority” (underlined is ours). In the following explanation, written in Spanish, at the time when the term was proposed (2005), this idea appears (again, the emphasis is ours): "Verbal diversity is defined in the Dictionary of the Royal Academy of Language: “diversity.” (From lat. • F1 It was different.” Hitz horretan islatu nahi dugu hori, eta ezaldea, beti ere giza estatistikan izaten dena.»

Therefore, if the term indicates the difference, the word diversity is not adequate, because it means abundance.

In some contexts it can be logical to say "the functional diversity that is found among people" to express "the abundance of types of functionality", but, in the case of a person, we believe that it is not semantically appropriate to say that it has a "functional diversity", much less if it is a "diversity" without "abundance" the meaning that is to be transmitted.

In addition to EUSKALTERM, the Elhuyar Dictionary includes a functional diversity.

Dibertsitate funtzional

However, the agreement on this new term is not absolute among specialists in the area. Does the Termcat terminology center blog say so? Article 11.

D’un temps ençà has been transmitted to functional diversity, form that some people have proposed that substitueixi el terme discute, però que no té, tanmateix, l’accde totel sector. If we analyze this denomination from linguistic point of view, functional diversitat can be defined, based on the normative dictionary, com la qu} of operation in a different way. - Les persones amb diversitat funcional, doncs, som totes les persones, perquè la diversitat funcional és una características inherente a l’ésser humà. Aleshores, semla que no serveix per a referir-se a col·lectiu concret.

Therefore, it is possible that within a time this expression will be reviewed and a new proposal will be presented, as has happened with the aforementioned disabilities, insufficiencies, disabilities and others. Meanwhile, Elhuyar's recommendation is to use functional diversity, so in these lines we have tried to explain what are the reasons for this.


1 Javier Romañach, Manuel Lobato: “Functional diversity, a new term for the struggle for dignity in human diversity.” Independent Life Forum.

Percentages, percentages, percentages… (14-10-2020)

In the Dictionary of the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, the words percentage and percentage are an introduction, but not a percentage. The search for the percentage in Elhuyar dictionaries leads us to the introduction of the percentage. It is clear, therefore: The “amounts” represented by the % symbol are percentages or percentages, not percentages.

And where and how to use this symbol? Before the number? Next? Associated to the number? Separately?

Euskaltzaindia has said nothing but:

So many percent mark, that is ahead of the number. For example: 5% = five percent (Euskera, XVI, 1971).

It is clear, therefore, that the symbol will be preceded by the number in Basque, unlike Spanish, French and English.

In that 1971 norm of Euskaltzaindia nothing is explicitly said about the distance between the symbol and the number, but this is written in the text leaving a gap. EIMA Spelling also recommends leaving a gap:

The percentage is written digitally, giving an exact amount on the right side of the % symbol and leaving a gap between the two.

This is also regulated in Spanish (recommendation collected on page 590 of the Spelling of the RAE 2010). Beware, then, because otherwise appears the Pan-Hispanic Dictionary of Doubts, dating from 2005, that is, older than the new spelling, so you have to follow what is collected in the new spelling. And Fundéu also recommends it, leaving a gap).

In English, however, the best-known style books recommend not leaving room between number and symbol (12%). For example, the prestigious The Chicago Manual of Style recommends:

Note also that no space appears between the numeral and the symbol%.

However, the official NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) body of the U.S. Department of Commerce, in the Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI), states:

7.10.2% percentage by fraction

(...) When it is used, a space is left between the symbol % and the number by which it is multiplied [4: ISO 31-0]. (...)
Example: xB = 0.0025 = 0.25 % but not:xB = 0.0025 = 0.25%

In the case of French, the typographical rules are established by the National Press in France, but nothing is specified about it Lexique des régles typographiques en usage à l'Imprimerie nationale. However, l’Office québécois de la langue française recommends putting a gap in its prestigious Banque de dépannage linguistique:

Keep in mind that the main meanings of ponctuation and autres signes ou symboles

Signe ou symbole: %. Avant: Unites insider space. Après: A space.

Remarques et exemples: Respectively 8% and 7.25%

This is also recommended by the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie, which is the path followed by French Wikipedia.

Finally, the international standard ISO 31-0:1992 (E) also includes a complete and complete wording, while proposing the reverse of the order in Basque.

Therefore, Elhuyar recommends that the percentages in Basque be written in symbolic order, leaving a gap: 2%.

What is the compound you just found on Venus called? Fosf… what? (24-09-2020)

In talking about the possibilities of finding life off Earth, Mars is probably the first place we can think of most. This planet has been the most studied, since it has long been considered that there are conditions for life. Signs of a life in the past can be found and this is an open field of research.

For its part, Venus has always referred to as an inappropriate environment for life: due to the large greenhouse effect, the atmosphere is extremely hot (average temperature of 464ºC), with little water, and is covered by clouds of sulfuric acid. Hell.

But it is that a group of researchers we have known recently discovered a compound in the atmosphere of Venus, and since on Earth this substance is only generated by biological processes, it is possible that also on Venus is a sign of biological activity.

The formula of the compound is PH3, but as the news spread, many people have shown doubts about its name. The authors of the discovery used the name phosphine, fosfina in Basque. This is the name with the most tradition, used since 1865.

But the IUPAC, an international organization responsible for normalizing chemical nomenclature, has opted for phospane, which for us would be fosfano.

It is a “systematic” name. According to Jacinto Iturbe in his introductory article on the nomenclature of the ZTH-Encyclopedic Dictionary of Science and Technology, the systematic names "are based on the stoichiometry of the substance", that is, on the composition, and are created from the name or root of a parental substance, using prefixes and suffixes. For example, the root of a compound containing two carbons, from which ethanes, ethanol, ethanol, etc.

In addition to systematic names, IUPAC also mentions tribal names, i.e. traditional names, and many of them are accepted. For example, the systematic name of the compound HCl is chlorine, but the name of hydrogen chloride is also allowed (hydrochloric acid is considered obsolete). This is not the case with the term phosphine to designate the compound PH3.

In this regard, Elhuyar recommends that the choice of IUPAC be considered and phosphanous be used, without prejudice to the existence of other terms. This is the criterion used in the news published in the journal Elhuyar: Fosfano detected in the atmosphere of Venus.

However, the term phosphine is not always exclusive, as IUPAC has recognized a meaning in the phosphine entry of GoldBook. It therefore makes a conceptual distinction phosphane / phospine. So what are these phosphines? In the PCTI they are defined as: "Generic name of organic compounds resulting from the substitution of one or more hydrogen atoms by radical phosphor carbonation." For example, the compound CH3PH2 is called methylphosphine.

Thus, in the ZTH the complete picture of these compounds has been modified.

Fosfina ZTH

The path of the discovery of Venus in the search for life off Earth is unknown. At the moment we know that phosphorus has been found, phosphine may be found in the future. Or not.


Hydroalcoholic and non-hydroalcoholic gels (10-9-2020)

In this atmosphere of pandemic that we are living and suffering, there are products that have become stars: the mask is undoubtedly the best known, but there is another that has made us as homemade as it: the hydrogel or the hydroalcoholic gel, that we use to wash our hands if we do not have soap and water.

When a product (hygienic, cosmetic, medicine...) is mixed with alcohol, it is qualified with the adjective hydroalcoholic. Thus, the hydroalcoholic gel is a room containing alcohol in its composition. If it is going to be viricide, that is, if the virus is going to die, the proportion of alcohol should be equal to or greater than 60%.

If the room does not have alcohol, it is not hydroalcoholic. Not all gels are therefore hydroalcoholic. If those who have alcohol are hydroalcoholic gels, how do we call those who do not have alcohol, those who are not hydroalcoholic?

It is simple: non-hydroalcoholic gels.

The fact is that non-adjective particles are joined by a script on the left.

Both in common language: non-short missions, non-exhaustive dinner, unclean hands, unslender body...

Both in technical language: non-linear distortion, non-magnetic steel, non-essential amino acid, non-inverter amplifier, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, non-pathogenic bacteria, non-automated treatment, non-perishable food, non-mechanical energy, non-ionizing radiation, non-toxic enamel, non-fertile cough, non-sexist education, financial use, language use.

However, there are a few, well known, who are traditionally written together. The exceptions are: unpleasant, indifferent, inadequate, unstable, uncomfortable, unknown, incapable, unstable, unusual, atypical, extraordinary, ignorant, ignorant. Some of them have the synonym (indifferent = indifferent, different = different, inappropriate = inappropriate, uncomfortable = uncomfortable, unknown = unknown, unknown = ignorant).

If the adjective is a verbal participle, in Basque, on the other hand, we have another way to express the same idea: instead of binding it from left to rayite particle, directly link the word without the right. For example, saturated solutions and unsaturated solutions are used in chemistry, while unsaturated solutions are hardly used, although not possible. Other widely used are:

imperfect, imperfect, immature, unplayed, uncultured, unusual, incomplete, incomplete, intact, indeterminate.

Sometimes, however, both are used with the same meaning, since in use there has been fixed or totally predominated one: play / not played, indefinite / not defined, imperfect / not completed.

Because you can't give anything (29-07-2020)

Generosity is beautiful, but not all that "is given", such as coronavirus cases, dead…

The verb “Eman” has many senses in Basque; for example, the Euskaltzaindia Dictionary includes 14. There is, however, an acceptance that appears in the texts that has been expressly rejected by Euskaltzaindia and spread as a pandemic. Acepción 49 del verbo «dar» en castellano segun DRAE:


The Euskaltzaindia Dictionary contains the following note:

EH eman oharra

And the Unified Basque Handbook says:

EBE eman

Therefore, the following examples recently collected in the Basque media are not correct:

*3 dead and 9 new positive in Hego Euskal Herria.

*A total of 5,137 cases of CRP have occurred since the onset of the coronavirus pandemic.

*On the eve, there have been 399 more cases in the last 24 hours.

*In Alava there have been 444 cases and there are 191 in the hospital.

*Since the beginning of the disease, yesterday was the day on which they became more positive. In the last 24 hours there have been 106 thousand cases.

Attention. "Give them wide", yes, but if we give you, not anything! :-)



What is it? What is it? (15-7-2020)

It seems that soon we will have to wear the scrap and we will not be able to take it away until we return home. Yes, yes, we talk about what we use to cover the nose and mouth, but what is it called? Mask, mask, mask, kisses…?

Mask is quite rooted in Spanish. Masque predominates in French. In English they use (face) mask. And in Basque?

In Basque something curious happened to us. Until now, the mask was the only compensation that appeared in most dictionaries and texts, but another word is heard: bolo-bolo: musuko.

Apparently, the sociolinguist Patxi Saez proposed to those responsible for the Basque language of Berria and ETB to use it as a word “more coveted” by the Basque language, a trend that has been successful, since it is heard everywhere.

It is clear that it is a well composed word in Basque (kiss + ko), and this is explained by the Basque language Adolfo Arejita in the Basque Country Irratia (20-4-2020).

Therefore, we do not see problems to use it in the kiss. But we must not forget that the mask is an international word and therefore a word in Basque. In the technical texts the mask continues to predominate in Basque.

The Dictionary of the Royal Academy of the Basque Language does not yet appear, and recently we have added to the word mask the meaning we use: "Protector covering the mouth and nose, used to protect against pathogens, toxic or dust." In Euskalterm it does not appear by kiss either. The Labayru dictionary, however, collects both by mask and by mosu/kiss. The style book of the news also collects the mask, but not for kiss.

And in Elhuyar what?

In their day they spread through the mobile phone and the sega-poto to designate the mobile phone, and we have collected them in our dictionaries; as popular word the first and as colloquial the second. It would not be wrong to do the same with the word of the kiss.

It is recommended to use a mask in scientific and technical texts. In the rest we have no problems accepting the kiss.

How to write and decline COVID-19 (02-07-2020)

In recent months, the lives of all of us have been altered by a widespread disease and caused by a pandemic. 2019-nCoV is an acute respiratory disease, but the acronym for coronavirus disease 2019 has been extended to name it in most languages: COVID-19 (CO = crown; VI = virus; D = disease; 19 = 2019). And we also recommend it in Basque.

Being an acronym for a longer name, it's up to you to capitalize and put a dash between letters and numbers. However, in some languages, their use has begun to give way to the lowercase. Thus, in English and Spanish, for example, you can see the scriptures Covid-19 and covid-19, both, but Fundéu recommends writing covid-19 in Spanish.

In his day the same happened with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. As a full name acronym, AIDS was originally used, but a few years ago the writing of AIDS has been imposed.

In this case the realization of this path is not surprising either. However, it is still new, and given the use that has been made so far, we recommend capitalizing on Basque: COVID-19.

Therefore, it is clear what the name of the disease is and how it should be written, but within the sentence what? How do we decline? For like all other diseases, it is a common name. Some examples are:

"Due to covid-19, events have been suspended."

«In the last 24 hours COVID-19 has not killed anyone in Euskal Herria»

"The pandemic of covid-19 also conditions the evolution of aerospace projects"

"They have taught us how to face covid-19 with courage"